Lately I’ve noticed more traditional livestock animals in residential areas. I’m sure 4-H has a lot to do with that along with selling cropland for development. Whatever the case, this new group of hobby farmers should be aware of a common invasive tree, the chinaberry.
Chinaberries are relatives to mahogany and were introduced back in the 1700’s as an ornamental. Since that time they have thrived. Invading adjacent areas, they limit species diversity by shading out other plants. They also contain chemicals that inhibit the growth of other plants.
These fast-growing weedy trees have few natural enemies, live on a wide range of soil types and can tolerate shade. Trees can attain heights of 50 feet, although few specimens approach that. My neighborhood is full of them as are areas around the high school.
Chinaberry has huge leaves finely divided into many tiny sections with toothed edges. Botanists refer to this leaf pattern as bipinnately compound. Yellow fall foliage is striking. After the leaves fall they seem to shrivel up and disappear. Raking is seldom necessary.
Plants bloom in early to late spring. Clusters of fragrant pinkish-lavender to white flowers cover these fern-like trees. The berrylike single-seeded fruits (drupes) are light yellow to white and appear from summer to fall. They often persist for most of the winter, occasionally getting blown of the trees by strong winds.
The fruit color should immediately set off a caution light in your brain. I know of no white berries (or in this case drupes) which are edible. In fact, chinaberry fruits are quite poisonous to humans, pets and livestock. Birds, such as chickens, turkeys and ducks appear to be unaffected by them.
Few animals eat the fruits as their bitter flavor is a strong deterrent. However, in situations where browsers like goats run low on other food sources, they might turn to chinaberry fruits, twigs, leaves and bark. This could pose a serious problem. I’d eliminate chinaberries in areas where pets or small children could ingest any parts of them.
My preferred method for permanent removal involves cutting them down and treating the stumps immediately with a concentrated solution of glyphosate (Round-up). Garlon is effective too. Always follow label directions when using any pesticide. Clean up all debris from the area before allowing grazing animals or small children access.
This plant may have an upside. Sometimes toxicity is not a bad thing. People have used chinaberry leaves to repel fleas. Some use crushed berries as a natural detergent to wash clothes. Hard seeds have been used for centuries to make rosary beads and bark extracts have even been used to stun fish.
Strong antimicrobial and antiviral properties and a long history of herbal use have encouraged medicinal research on chinaberry. Chinaberry leaves contain a protein called meliacine, which fights herpes simplex type 1. Aids research is also ongoing. Chinaberry extracts have also been used to treat intestinal worms. This is exciting, but please don’t self-medicate. While research presents intriguing information, this plant contains toxins that can kill you.
Ted Manzer teaches agriculture at Northeastern High School.