North Carolina’s State Flower: The Flowering Dogwood Tree


Woodland edges are now fringed with white, mostly from flowering dogwood flowers. They delight us before the leaves emerge. Many view dogwood (Cornus florida) as our state tree, but it isn’t. It’s our state flower and has been officially that since 1941.
In 1963, the General Assembly designated our state tree as the pine. I figure none of them were botanists as there are eight native species of pine in North Carolina. I wish they’d have picked one.
The most common to this area are the loblolly and the longleaf pine. However, shortleaf, Virginia, eastern white, pond, pitch, and Table Mountain Pine also dot our state forestland. A few others like Scot’s pine can also be found but they aren’t native. Dogwoods often grow under the shade of them all.
The native range of the flowering dogwood extends from southern Maine westward to Illinois and southward from Florida to Texas. While they sometimes grow in sunny places, dogwoods are primarily understory forest trees. They rarely reach 30 feet. When grown in dense shade, bloom is less spectacular.
Flowers are small clusters and not showy at all. The parts that catch our eye are the bracts that are immediately adjacent to the blooms. These white petal-like structures (pink on some ornamental varieties) form a cross-like pattern. Because of this, many legends link the dogwood to the crucifixion, but this is highly unlikely.
Legend states that dogwoods once were a large straight tree, but once Christ was nailed to a dogwood cross these trees never again were tall or straight. Also, the edges of the bracts appear to be tinged with brown, signifying blood stains.
All this makes for an interesting story, but dogwoods don’t grow in the Middle East. They are native to Europe and North America and there is no record of them ever growing in that region.
Dogwoods are shallow rooted trees. Because of this they don’t tolerate drought very well. When exposed to intense heat, wind and little rainfall, leaves brown starting from the edges and sometimes entire leaves shrivel up and fall off. This condition is called leaf scorch and is very common from our area southward.
Since these small trees often struggle in the heat one might assume they would thrive in wet areas. They don’t. If you want to grow one in your yard, pick a sheltered spot where water doesn’t collect. Dogwoods don’t like wet feet.
The most common disease to flowering dogwood is Anthracnose. This fungal pathogen causes dead spots on the foliage. In severe cases much of the canopy is affected.
If you are a dogwood lover and have trouble growing them due to this disease, try planting a Kousa (Chinese) dogwood. This species doesn’t have problems with anthracnose. The major difference between flowering and Kousa dogwoods is that Chinese dogwoods flower after leaves have developed. Edible mature Kousa fruits look like raspberries.
Clusters of red, single seeded fruits mature on flowering dogwoods in fall. Birds love them and they are edible for humans, but are a little bitter. Another common dogwood species, the Cornelian cherry, has delicious nutritious fruits.

Ted Manzer teaches agriculture at Northeastern High School.

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About tedmanzer

I grew up in Old Town Maine and got a B.S. at the University of Maine in Plant Sciences/ minor in Botany. From there I moved to West Virginia and earned a M.S. in Agronomy at WVU. I also met my wife there. She grew up in rural WV as the daughter of tenant farmers who raised cattle and hogs. Their lifestyle at times was one of subsistence and I learned a lot from them. I've always been a foraging buff, but combining my formal botanical knowledge with their practical 'Foxfire-type' background opened up my eyes a little more. I now teach agriculture to high school students at Northeastern High School in Elizabeth City, NC. My wife teaches with me and we make a great team. I also write a weekly nature/foraging column for the local paper (dailyadvance.com) and frequently publish articles in several other newspapers in northeastern North Carolina. I also have written several Christian nature/adventure novels that I plan to publish eventually. One is a five book family saga I call the 'Forgotten Virtues' series. In the first book, Never Alone, a young boy comes of age after his father dies in a plane crash, and he has to make it alone. Never Alone is now available in paperback, Kindle and Nook. The second book, Strange Courage, takes Carl from his High School graduation to his recovery from a nasty divorce. The third book, Second Chances, takes Carl from his ex-wife's death and the custody of his son to his heroic death at age 59. The fourth book, Promises Kept, depicts how his grandchildren react and adjust to his death. In the final book, Grandfather's Way, his youngest and most timid granddaughter emerges from the shadow of her overachieving family and accomplishes more in four months than most do in a lifetime. I use many foraging references with a lot of the plants I profile in these articles in those books.
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