Believe it or not pine trees have a rich tradition of edible uses


I remember watching Euell Gibbons in the old grape nuts commercials. On one he held out a pine branch and remarked how pine trees were edible. They never seemed too appetizing to me, but if someone were lost in the woods I guess they could gain enough sustenance to survive for a while.

Seeds of all pines are edible, although most eastern species have very small ones. It would take considerable effort to extract enough calories for a decent meal. Pinyon pines (Pinus edulis) grow in the Southwest and they have rather large seeds. As the scientific name indicates, they are edible. These are sold as pine nuts in grocery stores.

Pine needles of all our native types can be used to make a vitamin C rich tea. Vitamin A levels are high too. If this sounds intriguing to you it’s easy to do. I might caution that you don’t boil the needles. Steep them in near boiling water for a few minutes. Boiling will release terpenes and your beverage will taste like turpentine. Boiling also destroys vitamin C, but add sugar or honey if you like.

Pine needle teas have been used medicinally for centuries to treat colds and respiratory infections. The tea acts as an expectorant. It also has decongestive properties. Inhaling the vapors from the tea or using needles as a simmering potpourri may break up mucus in the lungs.

Pine tea contains a chemical called shikimic acid. This compound is one considered antiviral and is a major ingredient of Tamiflu.

White pine (Pinus strobus) probably tastes better but loblolly (Pinus taeda) and longleaf (Pinus palustris)pines more common around here are fine. Some of the western pines are toxic to livestock so I wouldn’t recommend them. Firs and spruces are good. Eastern hemlock (Tsuga canadensis) is even acceptable. It is not related to the poison hemlock (Conium maculatum) often found along our ditches. Avoid yews (Taxus sp.) because they contain a chemical called Taxol. This is used in treating some types of cancer but otherwise is considered poisonous.

Inner bark of pine trees is also edible. The best way to fix it is to fry it in oil until golden brown. If you use your imagination the flavor might resemble potato chips. I think it’s a stretch, but that’s the only way the bark is very palatable. This inner bark is thin and will burn if you’re not watching closely. Again, white pine probably has the best flavor and texture. We have few around here.

Pine resin also makes a suitable chewing gum. When I was a kid we used to chew spruce, fir or white pine sap. It wasn’t too bad. There were a few country stores that actually sold spruce chewing gum, but we were cheap skates and collected our own.

The best part of collecting pine seeds, bark or needles is that these things are easy for anyone to identify and they are plentiful. You can camp out in the backyard and your kids can pretend to be pioneers. There’s very little chance they could be hurt by pine products, allergies aside.

 

Ted Manzer teaches agriculture at Northeastern High School.

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About tedmanzer

I grew up in Old Town Maine and got a B.S. at the University of Maine in Plant Sciences/ minor in Botany. From there I moved to West Virginia and earned a M.S. in Agronomy at WVU. I also met my wife there. She grew up in rural WV as the daughter of tenant farmers who raised cattle and hogs. Their lifestyle at times was one of subsistence and I learned a lot from them. I've always been a foraging buff, but combining my formal botanical knowledge with their practical 'Foxfire-type' background opened up my eyes a little more. I now teach agriculture to high school students at Northeastern High School in Elizabeth City, NC. My wife teaches with me and we make a great team. I also write a weekly nature/foraging column for the local paper (dailyadvance.com) and frequently publish articles in several other newspapers in northeastern North Carolina. I also have written several Christian nature/adventure novels that I plan to publish eventually. One is a five book family saga I call the 'Forgotten Virtues' series. In the first book, Never Alone, a young boy comes of age after his father dies in a plane crash, and he has to make it alone. Never Alone is now available in paperback, Kindle and Nook. The second book, Strange Courage, takes Carl from his High School graduation to his recovery from a nasty divorce. The third book, Second Chances, takes Carl from his ex-wife's death and the custody of his son to his heroic death at age 59. The fourth book, Promises Kept, depicts how his grandchildren react and adjust to his death. In the final book, Grandfather's Way, his youngest and most timid granddaughter emerges from the shadow of her overachieving family and accomplishes more in four months than most do in a lifetime. I use many foraging references with a lot of the plants I profile in these articles in those books.
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