Ground cherries are underappreciated wild fruits


The internet is a great place to gain knowledge. It’s also a bastion for false or misleading information. Sometimes I read something and laugh. Then I wonder how many other people read that same thing and were scared by it. It’s all how the author wants to spin the facts.

I was researching poisonous plants recently and found one that I know is not only edible, but it is also quite good. Ground cherry (Physalis sp.is a member of the potato family, just like tomatoes, peppers, eggplant and tomatillo. Ground cherry is a wild tomatillo. The fruits are excellent, provided they haven’t been sprayed by pesticides.

So why do so many sources consider them deadly poisonous? Leaves and stems contain alkaloids that are highly toxic, as is potato foliage. Immature ground cherry berries can cause upset stomach, vomiting and diarrhea, but so can many immature fruits.

Eating the proper plant parts at their correct growth stage is a no-brainer for cultivated foods. The fact that something is considered a weed seems to scare some people, and maybe in some cases that’s good. Inadequate education is sometimes worse than none at all.

So where do we find these ground cherries and what do they look like? There are close to 30 different species in the United States and about a third of them grow in Carolina. However, few are present in our area.

Often plants can be found in our gardens or adjacent disturbed places. They tolerate moderate amounts of shade. Wild turkey and other game birds consume the fruits but won’t graze the plants at all.

Ground cherries grow best in well-drained soils with adequate moisture. During drought periods they often drop their fruit. When fully ripe they also do this, hence the name ‘ground cherry.’ Fruits generally ripen in the summer and fall.

Plants have dark green leaves and flowers that are distinctly potato-like. Most species have pentagon shaped yellowish flowers with five fused petals. Usually, there is purplish blush toward the flower centers.

Distinctive fruits are encased in a papery husk, just like tomatillos. Husks are not edible. Though much smaller, berry flavor is mildly sweet like a tomato or tomatillo. Fruits can be harvested before they are completely ripe, but must not be eaten until they soften. Husk color ranges from a light yellowish to orange. Once berries are mature there will be no bitter flavor.

Fruits can be eaten raw or cooked. They can be sweetened and make a great pie filling. They also make a great salsa verde, although the color is more orange and not green. They even can be dried like raisins and used accordingly. Mincemeat lovers can experiment by adding some to their favorite recipe, especially if no currants are available. They also make great jellies and jams or use them fresh in salads.

The biggest challenge in this locale is availability. I rarely see populations of ground cherries like I did in West Virginia. It’s a shame because ripe fruits are not poisonous. We must read deeper than the headlines.

Immature ground cherries

Ground cherry plant with flower

 

Ted Manzer teaches agriculture at Northeastern High School.

About tedmanzer

I grew up in Old Town Maine and got a B.S. at the University of Maine in Plant Sciences/ minor in Botany. From there I moved to West Virginia and earned a M.S. in Agronomy at WVU. I also met my wife there. She grew up in rural WV as the daughter of tenant farmers who raised cattle and hogs. Their lifestyle at times was one of subsistence and I learned a lot from them. I've always been a foraging buff, but combining my formal botanical knowledge with their practical 'Foxfire-type' background opened up my eyes a little more. I now teach agriculture to high school students at Northeastern High School in Elizabeth City, NC. My wife teaches with me and we make a great team. I also write a weekly nature/foraging column for the local paper (dailyadvance.com). I also have written several Christian nature/adventure novels that I plan to publish eventually. One is a five book family saga I call the 'Forgotten Virtues' series. In the first book, Never Alone, a young boy comes of age after his father dies in a plane crash, and he has to make it alone. Never Alone is now available in paperback, Kindle and Nook. The second book, Strange Courage, takes Carl from his High School graduation to his recovery from a nasty divorce. The third book, Second Chances, takes Carl from his ex-wife's death and the custody of his son to his heroic death at age 59. The fourth book, Promises Kept, depicts how his grandchildren react and adjust to his death. In the final book, Grandfather's Way, his youngest and most timid granddaughter emerges from the shadow of her overachieving family and accomplishes more in four months than most do in a lifetime. I use many foraging references with a lot of the plants I profile in these articles in those books.
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3 Responses to Ground cherries are underappreciated wild fruits

  1. tonytomeo says:

    They are surprisingly uncommon here too. One our clients grew them, but only because he had seen them in gardens in Italy, and ordered the seed after returning.

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