It’s fall in eastern North Carolina but where’s all the color?

I love driving around and observing the fall colors. In most years the yellows, reds and oranges are spectacular. However, has anyone else noticed this is a subpar fall color year locally? Perhaps we should analyze the factors contributing to fall color and maybe it will give us a clue.

In general, warm wet springs mean dense tree canopies. More leaves provide a greater chance of a colorful fall. That’s the first part of the equation. If summers are neither too hot nor too dry those leaves tend to stay on the trees.

Fall weather is critical. Favorable color conditions are warm sunny days and cool but not extremely cold nights. In fall, the day length shortens and overall temperature falls, triggering the color changing process.

Chlorophyll is the substance in leaves that makes them green. It also is essential for photosynthesis, the most important chemical reaction in the world. Photosynthesis provides plants with sugar so they can grow and provide everything else with food.

Chlorophyll is not a very stable compound. Sun breaks it down and it must be replaced continually. In warm weather that’s not a problem. When day length shortens and temperatures fall chlorophyll doesn’t get replaced and leaves begin to lose their green color.

Green gets replaced by yellows oranges, reds and purples. In short, the xanthophylls, caraotenoids and anthocyanins start showing their true colors. How strong they develop and how long they persist depends largely on fall weather. Freezing temperature can halt the process and some pigments fail to emerge fully.

We often associate fall leaf color with frost, but cold temperatures don’t cause leaves to change color. In fact, hard frosts and freezes stop the process and leaves turn black. Locally, many leaves show signs from the frosts we had back a few weeks when temperatures fluctuated drastically for a few days.

In fall when day length shortens, lower sap levels trigger a process that creates a layer at the point where leaves meet stems. It’s called an abscission layer. Cells thicken and vascular tissue narrows, reducing the flow of liquids. Eventually the leaves fall.

Stress from disease can cause leaves to abscise prematurely too. I’ve noticed this on crape myrtles especially this year. Color change starts but within a few days all foliage is gone.

Various sucking insects were abundant this year. They led to a bad sooty mold problem in many locales. Upon closer inspection other foliage diseases developed as well. I found Cercospora leaf spot on most of the fallen leaves. Leaves are covered with brown speckles. This recent period of cloudy rainy weather probably contributed to it.

Some pockets still provide good color. Certain species such as southern red oak have yet to develop their color yet, so we still have some potential left. Nearly all sycamore leaves are on the ground and yellow poplars are getting there quickly. It seems this fall that many leaves fell without changing much and the rest are still green. Let’s hold out hope for some more clear mild days with some night temperatures in the low 40s.


Ted Manzer teaches agriculture at Northeastern High School. (


About tedmanzer

I grew up in Old Town Maine and got a B.S. at the University of Maine in Plant Sciences/ minor in Botany. From there I moved to West Virginia and earned a M.S. in Agronomy at WVU. I also met my wife there. She grew up in rural WV as the daughter of tenant farmers who raised cattle and hogs. Their lifestyle at times was one of subsistence and I learned a lot from them. I've always been a foraging buff, but combining my formal botanical knowledge with their practical 'Foxfire-type' background opened up my eyes a little more. I recently retired from teaching high school agriculture after 25 years teaching with my wife. Until recently I wrote a weekly nature/foraging column for the local paper ( I also have written several Christian nature/adventure novels that can be purchased on Amazon in Kindle format. One is a five book family saga I call the 'Forgotten Virtues' series. In the first book, Never Alone (presently out of print), a young boy comes of age after his father dies in a plane crash, and he has to make it alone. The second book, Strange Courage, takes Carl from his High School graduation to his recovery from a nasty divorce. The third book, Second Chances, takes Carl from his ex-wife's death and the custody of his son to his heroic death at age 59. The fourth book, Promises Kept, depicts how his grandchildren react and adjust to his death (this one is not yet published). In the final book, Grandfather's Way, his youngest and most timid granddaughter emerges from the shadow of her overachieving family and accomplishes more in four months than most do in a lifetime. I use many foraging references with a lot of the plants I profile in these articles in those books. I also wrote a romance novel titled Virginia. It is available on Amazon and is a different type of romance from a man's perspective.
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