Navel oranges are a successful genetic accident

We’re approaching the season where many citrus trees are producing ripe fruit. Perhaps no orange cultivar has been more successful for the fresh market than the navel orange. Valencia oranges are used more for juice and juice is the biggest use for oranges. Navels are a close second in total consumption worldwide.

Unlike most of the plants we grow for food, the navel orange was never selectively bred. The first navel orange emerged in Brazil around 1820. It was a type of genetic mutation called a sport. A single bud developed abnormally and this naturally genetically modified bud grew into a branch and began producing sweet fruit with thick easy to peel skin and the characteristic navel on the blossom end.

About 50 years later the USDA imported a few rooted cuttings. Many sources claim they were seedlings, but this would not be possible as navel oranges have no seeds, or at least no viable seeds. At any rate, the California navel orange industry was born. As the story goes, a pioneer woman named Eliza Tibbets obtained two of these plants. Supposedly one is still alive and producing fruit in Riverside, California.

Since navel oranges can’t reproduce by seed we make new trees by grafting a bud onto an existing tree. Nearly any common citrus tree will work. Believe it or not oranges, lemons, limes and grapefruits all are the same species (Citrus sinensis).

Navel oranges are not only all the same species, but they are also genetically identical. This makes disease epidemics potentially problematic. If one tree was susceptible to a pathogen every other one in the grove would also be. Plants propagated by seeds vary somewhat genetically.

In addition to bud grafting, navel oranges and all citrus trees can be propagated by cuttings. A small piece of stem can be removed, treated with rooting hormone and placed in soil to produce new roots. This method is fine for amateur gardeners, but most commercial growers prefer to bud desired cultivars on rootstocks, many of which show resistance to root diseases.

After flowering, navel oranges average about nine months before the fruits are mature. Color is not a critical factor and eating quality can be excellent even if fruits are largely still green. Most growers taste the fruit or check for sugar levels about seven months after flowering. Under ideal conditions fruits might be ripe enough to harvest.

Most citrus fruits are different than apples, for example. Apples ripen over a narrow time period. If ripe specimens aren’t picked they fall. Citrus fruits will hold on trees for a long time, but the younger developing fruits might be the first to fall. Trees also may have flowers and fruit developing simultaneously.

While folks will always argue for their favorite citrus fruit, the navel orange is truly unique. It’s a genetic mistake that became very popular. Who knows, the same thing might happen to those seedy tangerines. Can you imagine how much they’d be improved if we didn’t have to fight through all the seeds?


Ted Manzer teaches agriculture at Northeastern High School. (

About tedmanzer

I grew up in Old Town Maine and got a B.S. at the University of Maine in Plant Sciences/ minor in Botany. From there I moved to West Virginia and earned a M.S. in Agronomy at WVU. I also met my wife there. She grew up in rural WV as the daughter of tenant farmers who raised cattle and hogs. Their lifestyle at times was one of subsistence and I learned a lot from them. I've always been a foraging buff, but combining my formal botanical knowledge with their practical 'Foxfire-type' background opened up my eyes a little more. I recently retired from teaching high school agriculture after 25 years teaching with my wife. Until recently I wrote a weekly nature/foraging column for the local paper ( I also have written several Christian nature/adventure novels that can be purchased on Amazon in Kindle format. One is a five book family saga I call the 'Forgotten Virtues' series. In the first book, Never Alone (presently out of print), a young boy comes of age after his father dies in a plane crash, and he has to make it alone. The second book, Strange Courage, takes Carl from his High School graduation to his recovery from a nasty divorce. The third book, Second Chances, takes Carl from his ex-wife's death and the custody of his son to his heroic death at age 59. The fourth book, Promises Kept, depicts how his grandchildren react and adjust to his death (this one is not yet published). In the final book, Grandfather's Way, his youngest and most timid granddaughter emerges from the shadow of her overachieving family and accomplishes more in four months than most do in a lifetime. I use many foraging references with a lot of the plants I profile in these articles in those books. I also wrote a romance novel titled Virginia. It is available on Amazon and is a different type of romance from a man's perspective.
This entry was posted in foraging and tagged , , , , , , , , , . Bookmark the permalink.

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s