Yellow poplars are great shade trees but can also pose problems


Yellow poplars (Liriodendron tulipifera), also called tulip trees are tall straight fast-growing trees with great fall color. Trees often attain heights of a hundred feet or more. They also require little or no pruning to develop a uniform and dense canopy. These attributes make them a good choice for landscape shade trees.

Another plus is that yellow poplars are also native trees. An increasing number of folks are concerned about the invasive effects of exotic species.

They grow well in moist soils but sometimes struggle on dry sites. Trees also don’t tolerate pollution or salt spray very well. They also can be susceptible to aphids and tulip tree scale as well as verticillium wilt if drought-stressed.

Yellow poplars also have relatively soft wood and loads of foliage and fruit residue to deal with. That’s not so good, but I don’t think it’s bad enough to reject using them.

Along property lines they are awesome. Yellow poplar also can be well suited to large lawns since they grow tall enough to be planted well away from structures and still provide shade to the yard.

The foliage of these giants is intriguing. Leaves are large and shaped somewhat like the face of a cat. The upper two lobes are pointed and look like the ears. The sides stick out like a cat’s cheeks. In the fall, these leaves turn a bright yellow. The bark is an attractive light gray color. Flowers resemble tulip flowers.

From a forestry standpoint, they are a very valuable tree, but they aren’t really a true poplar. They are in the magnolia family. Their wood does resemble the true poplars, which we commonly call aspens.  Their wood is soft, but it is straight-grained, lightweight and easy to work.

These magnolia relatives also self-prune effectively. This means they naturally shed their lower branches, so lumber has few knots. Copious quantities of clear boards can be sawed from each tree. We use the wood for construction lumber and fencing, and because of the straight uniform grain, they take stain and paint evenly.

In nature, yellow poplars often form pure stands. This is because they are what we call intolerant trees. Seedlings must have full sunlight to develop, so they establish in abandoned sites or after clear-cut timbering operations, assuming mature trees are nearby.

Historically, herbalists have used these trees to treat a variety of ailments. The bark contains an alkaloid called tulipferine. Native Americans once chewed it as an aphrodisiac. This sounds interesting; however, I have no personal experience with it.

Inner bark from yellow poplar species here and in China are steeped into teas to treat fever and digestive problems. Many early settlers used the bark this way. The tea is a natural diuretic, so people also used it as a quinine substitute. These preparations are rarely used now, but there have never been any reported ill-effects from them.

It’s amusing. Yellow poplar is one of our most common and recognized trees but one not often used ornamentally. With the trend toward using native species for landscaping, I bet that might change.

Leaf with catface appearance

 

yellow poplar foliage beginning to turn

 

Ted Manzer teaches agriculture at Northeastern High School.

About tedmanzer

I grew up in Old Town Maine and got a B.S. at the University of Maine in Plant Sciences/ minor in Botany. From there I moved to West Virginia and earned a M.S. in Agronomy at WVU. I also met my wife there. She grew up in rural WV as the daughter of tenant farmers who raised cattle and hogs. Their lifestyle at times was one of subsistence and I learned a lot from them. I've always been a foraging buff, but combining my formal botanical knowledge with their practical 'Foxfire-type' background opened up my eyes a little more. I now teach agriculture to high school students at Northeastern High School in Elizabeth City, NC. My wife teaches with me and we make a great team. I also write a weekly nature/foraging column for the local paper (dailyadvance.com). I also have written several Christian nature/adventure novels that I plan to publish eventually. One is a five book family saga I call the 'Forgotten Virtues' series. In the first book, Never Alone, a young boy comes of age after his father dies in a plane crash, and he has to make it alone. Never Alone is now available in paperback, Kindle and Nook. The second book, Strange Courage, takes Carl from his High School graduation to his recovery from a nasty divorce. The third book, Second Chances, takes Carl from his ex-wife's death and the custody of his son to his heroic death at age 59. The fourth book, Promises Kept, depicts how his grandchildren react and adjust to his death. In the final book, Grandfather's Way, his youngest and most timid granddaughter emerges from the shadow of her overachieving family and accomplishes more in four months than most do in a lifetime. I use many foraging references with a lot of the plants I profile in these articles in those books.
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1 Response to Yellow poplars are great shade trees but can also pose problems

  1. tonytomeo says:

    We know them as tulip trees. They happen to develop good yellow color even in the mild autumn weather here. They do just as well farther south in Los Angles. However, they were planted as monocultural street trees in large areas of San Jose decades ago. When the magnolia scale moved in, many needed to be removed. A similar scale is moving into Los Angeles and ruining the Southern magnolias, which were not bothered here.

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