Comfrey is a plant of many misconceptions

Pick up any book on poisonous plants and comfrey will be in it. It is an old-time herb that has been used for centuries for various things. Some folks eat it. Some make tea. Some make topical medicines from it. Some feed it to livestock. Some people avoid it like the plague.

Common comfrey (Symphytum officinale) is in the borage family. It is a large perennial herb that has thick stems and usually grows two to three feet high. Plants grow quickly and have a furry texture. They can grow in shady places, but their bloom will be less than it would be in a sunnier location.

Plants have thick long taproots. This makes them quite drought tolerant. They also are well adapted to wet places. In either location, plants yield a huge amount of vegetation capable of producing loads of compost to enrich the soil at the very least.

Comfrey has a narrow carbon to nitrogen ratio. This means that it breaks down very quickly and releases its nutrient to the soil. These properties help it make other compost materials break down faster.

The dominant feature of this herb is its copious quantities of purple flowers. Bees love them. Occasionally, people will plant comfrey simply to add pollinators to fruit trees and small fruit gardens.

One problem with this herb is that once you have it you always will. It’s not overly invasive, but it’s difficult to get rid of, particularly selectively in a garden. Continued pruning can usually keep it in its place.

Years ago, comfrey was a common plant used as a food source and as a medicinal herb. In recent years all comfrey products for internal use have been banned in this country and in many others.

The reason is that plants accumulate pyrrolizidine alkaloids that are very toxic. These chemicals accumulate in the leaves, stems and roots. In general, alkaloids must be broken down by the liver, and that puts massive stress on it. These alkaloids are especially problematic.

Years ago, comfrey was used as livestock feed. Cattle, hogs and poultry all will eat it. They generally performed quite well, too. Some farmers still include comfrey in the rations of their livestock.

However, when we consider the lifespans of livestock and compare that to those of humans, we realize that liver failure and cancer are maladies that usually take years to develop. Many livestock might be in the freezer by then.

Does that mean that comfrey has no human use anymore? Many topical products have been used successfully to treat arthritis and other bone and joint problems. A few clicks on the internet can lead you to creams and herbal oils many folks swear by.

Comfrey roots and leaves contain allantoin. This helps to rejuvenate the skin and reduce inflammation. However, commercial comfrey creams warn not to treat areas of broken skin. Despite lofty claims side-effects are many.

There are many different species of comfrey. Some have more alkaloids than others. However, all species produce pyrrolizidine alkaloids. I’m not planning on consuming any comfrey internally. I like my liver.


Ted Manzer teaches agriculture at Northeastern High School.

About tedmanzer

I grew up in Old Town Maine and got a B.S. at the University of Maine in Plant Sciences/ minor in Botany. From there I moved to West Virginia and earned a M.S. in Agronomy at WVU. I also met my wife there. She grew up in rural WV as the daughter of tenant farmers who raised cattle and hogs. Their lifestyle at times was one of subsistence and I learned a lot from them. I've always been a foraging buff, but combining my formal botanical knowledge with their practical 'Foxfire-type' background opened up my eyes a little more. I recently retired from teaching high school agriculture after 25 years teaching with my wife. Until recently I wrote a weekly nature/foraging column for the local paper ( I also have written several Christian nature/adventure novels that can be purchased on Amazon in Kindle format. One is a five book family saga I call the 'Forgotten Virtues' series. In the first book, Never Alone (presently out of print), a young boy comes of age after his father dies in a plane crash, and he has to make it alone. The second book, Strange Courage, takes Carl from his High School graduation to his recovery from a nasty divorce. The third book, Second Chances, takes Carl from his ex-wife's death and the custody of his son to his heroic death at age 59. The fourth book, Promises Kept, depicts how his grandchildren react and adjust to his death (this one is not yet published). In the final book, Grandfather's Way, his youngest and most timid granddaughter emerges from the shadow of her overachieving family and accomplishes more in four months than most do in a lifetime. I use many foraging references with a lot of the plants I profile in these articles in those books. I also wrote a romance novel titled Virginia. It is available on Amazon and is a different type of romance from a man's perspective.
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3 Responses to Comfrey is a plant of many misconceptions

  1. tonytomeo says:

    This is one of those places that has not yet been invaded by comfrey; and that is just fine with me. I have heard how bothersome of a weed it can be. I really have no use for it, but can always get its products from a store if I need to. Borage grows here, but is not a problem.

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